[1] ethics: Experimenting on animals. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

1 En.wikipedia.org.
(2018). Timeline of animal welfare and rights. online Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_animal_welfare_and_rights
Accessed 17 Jan. 2018.

2 Bbc.co.uk. (2018). BBC – Ethics –
Animal ethics: Experimenting on animals. online Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml Accessed 17 Jan.
2018.

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3 Anon, (2018). online Available at:
https://www.rspca.org.uk/whatwedo/endcruelty/changingthelaw/whatwechanged/animalwelfareact
Accessed 17 Jan. 2018.

4 BRUCE,
E. and AYALA, F. (2018). Humans and apes are genetically very similar.

5 AMNH. (2018). DNA: Comparing Humans and
Chimps. online
Available at:
https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/permanent-exhibitions/human-origins-and-cultural-halls/anne-and-bernard-spitzer-hall-of-human-origins/understanding-our-past/dna-comparing-humans-and-chimps/
Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.

6 Hsi.org. (2018). Costs of Animal and Non-Animal Testing: Humane Society
International. online Available at:
http://www.hsi.org/issues/chemical_product_testing/facts/time_and_cost.html
Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.

7 Bastasch, M. (2018). Feds spend up to $14.5 billion annually on animal testing.
online The Daily Caller. Available at:
http://dailycaller.com/2013/10/05/feds-spend-up-to-14-5-billion-annually-on-animal-testing/
Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.

8 Forbes.com. (2018). Forbes Welcome. online Available at:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2011/05/25/the-most-innovative-countries-in-biology-and-medicine-2/#254c30066af7
Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.

9 Anon, (2018). Science, Medicine, and Animals.

Another advantage of animal testing is it can prove beneficial to animals
themselves as well as humans. Treatment suchs as vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics,
surgical procedures, and other advancements developed in animal testing for human
use are now frequently utilised throughout veterinary medicine. This has
resulted in many animals including pets, livestock, and wild animals living longer
and healthier lives.9
Not only have human treatments been made relevant to animal use but medicines designed
specifically for animals have been developed including vaccines for Rabies, Canine
Parvovirus, Distemper, and Feline Leukemia which are all fatal diseases.9 As a result of improved animal healthcare many
endangered species can be bred in captivity and provided with the treatment
they need to grow healthily so that they can be released and help replenish
endangered species numbers in the wild. This helps maintain biodiversity for
future generations which most people will agree is one of the most important
issues of the modern world.9

Another disadvantage
of animal testing is it is very expensive and there are alternatives available
which could prove relevant and sucessful but at a much cheaper cost.2 Some animal tests can take years to conduct and analyse and cost between hundreds
of thousands or evem millions of dollars per substance examined. For example recent
rodent cancer studies took 4-5 years and at a cost of $2 – $4 million per cancer
study.6
This brings into question whether government funds couldn’t be better spent
elsewhere. The US government alone spends $14.5 billion on animal testing every
year with some projects draining taxpayers money for decades. According to Anthony
Bellotti, founder and executive director of the watchdog group, White Coat
Waste Project, “$14.5 billion could provide a lot of tax relief for Americans.
It could help pay down national debt or help prevent a shutdown”.7
This is just one example of the conflict the public face when the government
decided where their funds are best spent. Other examples of departments that
could use the funding include education, employment and social care. Despite
the US’s high spending on animal testing some people may argue that it is worth
it because the US is the highest producer of biomedical research. For example
out of almost 3,000 articles published in biomedical research in 2009, 40% came
from the United States.8

Another
advantage of animal testing is that humans are very similar to some animals
such as chimpanzees.4 As shown by the genetic diagram human and chimp DNA is very similar as
they contain similar bands of chromosomes, both have around 1100 different
genes.5 This can prove
extremely useful as it allows certain animals to be used as appropriate test
subjects. The similarity in DNA means the animal is likely to react to a
treatment in a similar way to that of a human.2
For example 98.8% of Chimpanzee DNA is shared with humans and Chimpanzees are
biologically similar as they have the same set of organs, bloodstream and central
nervous system.5
This is why they can be affected with the same diseases as humans.2 However, success in animal testing does not always equate to success in
human trials. In fact animal testing can lead to misleading information, as
some treatments may work with animals and not work on humans and likewise may
not work with animals but could have been valuble to humans.2

The concept of millions of
lives being saved for every medical advancement is not realistic, and the reality
is many drugs are unsuccessful or made purely for pharmaceutical companies to
make money. For this reason other people may argue that the benefits gained do
not outweigh the cruel and inhumane treatment the animals receive. For example
the Human Society International stated that some animals are “forced fed,
deprived of food and water, restrained physically for prolonged periods,
inflicted with burns, wounds and pain to test for healing process effects and
remedies or even killed through neck-breaking or asphyxiation” 2. This treatment of animals is illegal
according to the welfare act of 1966, except when inflicted for medical
research.3

One advantage of animal
testing is it contributes to the medical advancement of many medicines which
has saved countless lives.2 This may have only been
possible due to scientists having adequate living test subjects. The majority
of medical innovations in the past 100 years have been down to successful animal
testing. An example of this is the advancement of Insulin, which was made
possible by experimentation with dog pancreases and has saved millions of lives
since being discovered.2 Many animal
species also suffer with diabetes and the insulin enhancements has also
benefited other animals.This is just one instance where the medical benefits of
animal testing has outweighed the moral conflicts in terms of number of lives
saved, which is the main reason some people may argue that animal testing is a
necessity in in the present day.

Animal Testing has been a
controversial topic since the 1600s, when the first questions were raised about
animals and their treatment by philosophers, who believed that they are
sentient beings who deserved protection.1 Since then there has been
a copious amount of debates on this subject, which has consequently led to an
equilibrium being reached with both many advantages and disadvantages having
been concluded.