CONCLUSION book during the year he spent at the

CONCLUSION

Girish
Karnad chose simple and sweet language to write his famous play Naga-Mandala.
The title of the drama Naga-Mandala is
tremendously significant. It highlights one of the dramatic character around
which the entire story develop. Karnad dedicates this book to his friend,
mentor A.K Ramanujan. He wrote this book during the year he spent at the
University of Chicago as visiting Professor and Fulbright scholar in residence.
The play was first presented by Shri Shankar Nag in Kannada with his group,
‘Sanket’. Naga-Mandala was
premiered in US by the Guthrie Theatre of Minneapolis as a part of its
thirtieth anniversary celebrations. The Guthrie and the Haymarket Theatre,
Leicester, UK has been among the theatres that commissioned Karnad to write for
them.

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Style-
Girish Karnad has continued to produce plays of superlative standards for the
past four decades. He often used history and mythology to deal with
contemporary themes. Om Prakash Budholia writes about Girish Karnad as, ? he
uses indigenous resources for the structural design of his plays and picks up
Indian myths, metaphors, similes and symbols to use these in such a way as to
interpret the contemporary social and moral issues authoritatively (Girish
Karnad, 10).

Ancient
manuscripts like Ramayana, the Mahabharata, Yashodhara Charita,
Kathasaritasagar and other notable classical texts are allegorically used in
his plays. In addition, he has revived the age-old practices of literature like
?folk-lore, oral discourse and desi and margi theories in his structuration
–instincts ( Girish Karnad, 12).

These
ancient manuscripts give impetus to his instinctively born humanitarian zeal,
which further initiates him to voice out the pain and miseries of the silenced
majority through his works. His plays are the battleground for the
unprivileged, unheard and unwanted lot who have been victims of the patriarchy
or high class hierarchy. Karnad while depicting their sad and submissive
situation brings in these docile characters new vigour to fight against the
cold-blooded system and to improve their lot for a better and significant
standing (Girish Karnad, 17).

In
the theatrical world of Girish Karnad, women married or unmarried are victims
to denial, difficulty, humiliation and dishonor in almost every walk of life.
Patriarchal subjugation robs their chances to recognize and substantiate their
inborn caliber and capacity as human beings. As an actor, director and script
writer Karnad has been a thorough creative to juxtapose his cultural baggage of
tradition, culture and social milieu into the canvass of his plays. The past
for Karnad is eternally alive and with his continued passion for the fossilized
facts of the bygone ages, he has made a successful treasure hunt in his
dramatic endeavors. History for him has always been helpful to analyze life and
society, political tactics and secular principles (Om Prakash, 3).

In Naga-Mandala
Girish Karnad used the beautiful language as an object to convey the content
along with valuable and essential life message to his readers. He has chose hard
less as well as appropriate words to express the character’s feelings, thoughts
and emotions. The emotions were used like sad and happy, fear and shock and it
is crystal clearly explained by Girish Karnad in this play. The feeling of love
and optimistic thoughts are described through opt and accurate words by the
author in this play Naga-Mandala. He incredibly handled the events and
elements of the play in a skillful way along with beautiful literary terms. He
has manipulated amazing imageries to elevate the play and highlight the content
by means of language.

The
imageries are nothing but type of literary device which help the writer to
attract the reader and allows the reader to fly into the fantasy world along
with his content of the work. Actually the purposes of the imageries are to
elevate the language and highlight the story. The basic functions of imageries
are to make the reader to involve so much in the creative work through its
magical words. Here, in Naga-Mandala Girish Karnad also used beautiful
imageries to mesmerize his readers, elevate the content and highlight the
story. Descriptive language of each and every
literary piece is called as imageries. The five kinds of imageries
include visual, auditory, kinesthetic olfactory
(smell), gustatory (taste) and tactile (Touch) imagery. The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas.

                        Visual imagery denotes the sense of sight, and it plays the major role
in literature. It describes what a scene or character looks like. Auditory
imagery is another kind of imagery which describes specific sounds that
are happening within the tale. Olfactory imagery denotes a particular scent.
Gustatory imagery pertains to the sense of taste. Tactile imagery appeals to
the sense of touch. These five kinds of imageries are skillfully used by Girish
Karnad in Naga-Mandala.

                        Cobra
is one of the best visual imagery in Girish Karnad’s Naga-Mandala. The
play wright Girish Karnad used the visual imagery to describe the protagonist
Rani’s physical appearance. He explains that her ears are so pretty like
beautiful hibiscus flowers, lips like sparkling rolls of silk and skin like
young mango leaves. Then he describes Rani’s thick, long and black beautiful
hair as a cobra “for when her was tied up in a knot, it was as though a black
king cobra lay curled on the nape of her neck, coil upon glistening coil” (6). Nature
description is another important visual imagery in the play such as trees,
mountains and rivers.

                        Auditory
imageries are extraordinarily handled by Girish Karnad to describe the sounds
in this drama “Frogs croaking in pelting rain, tortoises singing soundlessly in
the dark, foxes, ants, crabs, rattlers, sharks, swallows – even the geese” (24).
Girish Karnad clearly brought out the barking sounds of dog to enumerate the
situation through the auditory imagery. Rani heard some sounds like eagle and whale
voice in her dreams ” then a big whale comes to Rani and says: come Rani let us
go…”.  This auditory imagery explains the
psychological sufferings of Rani.

                        In
Naga-Mandala touching imagery describes the emotions and feelings of the
characters. The blind women Kurudavva touched Rani and explained her beauty
“Let me touch you. My eyes are all in my fingers. She feels Rani’s face,
shoulder, neck through bars of the window. How beautiful you are” (11). Rani
applied ointment when Naga was wounded while fight with mongoose. This touch
imagery denotes the soul pain of Rani. When she comes to know that she was
pregnant Rani felt so happy and told her husband Appanna “we are going to have
a baby. She puts his hand on her belly. Just feel! Feel! Our baby is crouching
in there, in the darkness, listening to the sounds from the world outside – as
I do all day long” (30).

                        In
Naga-Mandala the gustatory (taste) imagery was handled by Girish Karnad
in simplified manner. This imagery plays the vital role in this play Naga-Mandala.
Rani grind middle-sized root into a nice paste and planned to give her husband
through milk “She mixes the paste into the milk. Comes out and gives Appanna
the glass of milk. He drinks it in a single gulp”(14).

                        Girish
Karnad chose some animal character like dog, cobra and mongoose to create his
extraordinary play Naga-Mandala. Actually the dog, cobra and mongoose
are known for their olfactory sense. This olfactory imagery helps to manipulating
the story of the play.

                        Girish
Karnad perfectly used the five kinds of imageries in this play Naga-Mandala
to not only elevate the language but the content too. Through this imageries
Girish Karnad describes how the marriage of the Rani let her into loneliness,
how the loneliness made to seek her husband’s love. For that love, what are the
ways she tried to gain it and due to this love how she became as a victim of
the society and culture. But very courageously she faced all problems through
her love and truth which are occurred in her life.

                        These
five kinds of imageries explain psychological sufferings of Rani. How her mind
suffered due to the conflicts of id, ego and superego. Even though she suffered
the different suggestions and solutions which are given by id, ego and superego,
Rani won over those problems by means of her love and truth.

                        Love
and truth are one of the most important and powerful tools in the world. Both
love and truth are great weapons in the universe. These two are like eyes of
human being that everyone should have to have in their precious life. Because
both love and truth are powerful weapons which are helpful in every human life
to conquer not only the animals, birds, reptiles and human envies but also even
the destiny too. Those who have been maintaining the love and truth in their
life could live the paradise life on the earth successfully by means of win
over the destiny and psychological sufferings.