“Contraception preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without

“Contraception has been used worldwide since ancient times. Writings in Egyptian papyri, the Bible, and Greek and Roman texts indicate the usage of various herb and root preparations for contraception and abortion” (Riddle qtd Teal). Birth control has been used significantly many times in history. It has improved globally since the early 1800s, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became accessible in the 20th century. Birth Control has many good opportunities for women because now they can monitor their cycle, plan or manage family sizes through various methods. Birth control can also provide medical benefits such as reduced cervical cancer using modern technologies.Birth control or contraception is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without ceasing sexual intercourse. Access to safe, relevant, and affordable family planning and abortion care can support women to have children when they want and save lives.  It can avoid dangers from pregnancies. By delaying and spacing out childbearing, a teen girl can expand her chances of finishing school and finding work that will provide a possible income.  Modern birth control methods also have health benefits, like improving anemia by reducing menstrual bleeding. Planned fertility undoubtedly impacts the health of children positively, maternal longevity, and the empowerment of women. Furthermore, controlling fertility reduces the predominance of chronic illness and maternal death from pregnancy-related conditions.Unplanned pregnancies can spot women, men, and families in a hazardous situation that has personal, health, social, and economic results. An unexpected pregnancy can lead a woman and her husband facing pregnancy, adoption, or raising an unplanned child. Contraceptive technologies and research developments in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases represent raised opportunities for not only controlling fertility but also improving healthy sex practices. Male and female condoms also lower the risk of spreading of some sexually transmitted infections including HIV Contraceptive techniques can be divided into three kinds: blockage of sperm transport to the ovum, prevention of ovulation, and blockage of implantation. Also, both men and women can use these methods in the first level, whereas those in the latter two kinds are only available to women. Each technique presents different trade-offs among comfort, price, availability, safety, and effectiveness. “Research continues in all these categories, partly because unplanned pregnancies continue to present personal and public health problems” (Nass and Strauss qtd Melo-Martín). Progress in genome sequencing, drug delivery, and materials science (a multidisciplinary field focused on the properties of functional solids) are important aspects of new techniques. Longer-lasting hormone-releasing IUDs are being developed, along with enhanced methods for inserting and removing them. Other techniques involve chemical reactions between ova and sperm or shape the pituitary secretion of certain reproductive hormones in both males and females.  Hence, the issue regarding the timing of pregnancy and control over family size now have many solutions. “The independent development of synthetic progesterone in the early 1950s by Frank Colton, a chemist at G. D. Searle pharmaceuticals, and Carl Djerassi, working for Syntex, a pharmaceutical company based in Mexico, allowed Gregory Pincus to create what would become known as the birth control pill. That development sparked a revolution in contraception” (Melo-Martín). The combination pill can also decrease or help prevent: bone thinning; cysts in the breasts and ovaries; acne; endometrial and ovarian cancers; iron deficiency (anemia), PMS (premenstrual syndrome). Birth control pills lower the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly among women who use them for more than 5 years. These women have a significantly lower risk of getting ovarian cancer compared with women who never used the pill. All birth control, including patches, rings, injections, and pills can achieve the same protection by blocking ovulation. The longer that you stay on birth control pills, the more protection you get. Emergency contraception, also known as post-coital contraception, includes any method that is performed after intercourse to avoid pregnancy. The Yuzpe method uses COC pills to deliver two large doses of hormones, separating twelve hours apart. The most active process of birth control is abstinence. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has said that sex education that combines information about both abstinence and birth control is a sufficient way to keep down the rate of teen pregnancy.Control of family size is a crucial debate for all adults, in every country. When choosing a contraceptive method, factors such as cultural, effectiveness, side effects, privacy, reversibility, and cost preferences should be considered. “US foreign aid has played a key role in the expansion of contraceptive choices” (Conly qtd Feldmann). Currently, more than half of all couples are promoting the worldwide practice of birth control, compared with 1 in 10 couples in the ’60s. Average family size in these countries decreased from six children to between three and four children. In other words, now birth control methods are being affordable and effective to everyone who needs it. “Modern and increasingly sufficient ways of birth control have been introduced as the result of a search for the methods that meet the criteria of safety, effectiveness, reversibility and convenience in accordance with the WHO recommendations” (Kulesza-Bronczyk). The variation in birth control methods and devices acknowledge the identification of methods of varying degrees of effectiveness criterion measured, mechanism (preventing fertilization-fusion of an egg cell and sperm or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg cell), and interference with physiological changes that occur in the female body (natural birth control methods and artificial methods of contraception.)”At the end of the 20th century the issue of birth control was complicated dramatically by the multiplying methods of birth control available to women and men” (Glankler). Mechanical, pharmaceutical and surgical advances increased during the late 20th century and added a broader array of birth control options. Mechanical devices include intrauterine devices (IUDs), the diaphragm, and the cervical cap, all used by women to prevent pregnancy in various ways. The most important pharmaceutical advance was the birth control pill, introduced in 1961. Others include injectable contraceptives (a synthetic hormone that is injected to suppress ovulation and builds an environment in the uterus unfriendly to conception) and the drug RU-486, or “the morning-after pill”. The Norplant device combines mechanical and pharmaceutical options. The Norplant device was introduced in 1990. It consists of different tiny rubber tubes implanted under the skin of a woman’s arm where they casually release the hormone progestin and prevent pregnancy for five years. Surgical options include sterilization and abortion. Abortion is the removal of a developing embryo or fetus from the uterus. The male vasectomy and the female tubal ligation are virtually stable forms of birth control that provides the male sterile and the female infertile. “The Foreign Assistance Act allowed $35 million for family-planning programs. With the Social Security amendments of 1967, 6 percent of the funds allotted for the Child Health Act were set aside for family-planning services. By 1968 the Office of Economic Opportunity funded over 120 family-planning clinics, and by 1969 the federal government had appropriated nearly $50 million for family planning and contraceptive service” (Glankler). Hence, even the government is increasing the opportunity for families to affordable contraceptive or birth control methods. In brief, Birth Control gives many opportunities for a couple to plan their family through various methods and provide medical benefits using modern technologies.