Cyprus International UniversityFaculty of PharmacyPHR404 LITERATURE SURVEYTopic: Antibiotics An Essay by:Falah BibwatStudent Number: 20156473Supervised by: Asst.Prof.Dr. Tanem Garanti2017-2018Antibiotic or antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria. 1 Antibiotics belong to a wider range of microbial compounds and are used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi and parasites. The term “antibiotics” was coined by the scientist Waxman in 1942 to describ e any material produced by microorganisms that contrasted the growth of other microorganisms in a very diluted medium. s. Many antibiotics have relatively small cod molecules with a molecular mass of less than 2,000 Dalton units. With the advacement of medical chemistry, most antibiotics have recently become semi-industrial and chemically … Pancillin was the basis for the treatment of many infectious diseases before the beginning of the twentieth century medical literature. As a treatment for inflammation in ancient Chinese medicine using plants with potent properties such as antibiotics; it has been used for more than 2,500 years. 4 5 In many other ancient cultures, including ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Arabs in the Middle Ages used mold fungus s. 6 7 The bark of the Kenaalaja tree was effective for large-scale malaria in the 17th century, the disease caused by parasites of the genus of biochemists 8 and the use of scientific efforts to understand what causes these diseases, the development of chemotherapy for synthetic antibiotics, the isolation of natural antibiotics marked Development of antibiotics. 9 Antibiotics are known as antibiotics. Antibiotics are drugs that perform microorganisms. The term antibiotic is ‘anti-life’ formulated by the French microbiologist Vulemin as a descriptive name for the phenomenon demonstrated by drugs. 10 (Antibiosis was first described in 1877 in the bacteria at Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. An airborne bacillus was found to inhibit the growth of anthrax bacilli. 11 These drugs were later renamed antibiotics and Waxman, a US biologist in 1942. 2 10 The story of chemotherapy with antibiotics began as a science in Germany with Erlich, late 19th century. Dr. Erlich observed that certain pigments could enter and color human and animal cells and cells of microorganisms, while others disintegrate. After a lot of experiments and sorting out hundreds of dyes against various organisms, he discovered a useful medicinal drug, an antibiotic of human discovery: Salvarsan Salvarsan. But because of the negative effects of this drug; in addition to the discovery of penicillin at a later date, it ceased to be used as an antibiotic. Ehrlich witnessed the birth of the antibiotic revolution, followed by the discovery of the Prontosil Dumac in 1932. Prontosyl had a relatively broad effect against gram-positive bacteria with little effect on enterobacteria. . Pasteur observed that “if we were able to intervene in the antagonism between certain types of microorganisms, this would provide the greatest hope for treatment. 13 The biological antagonism shown by the penicillium was first described by John Tindall in England in 1875. 13 His work received considerable attention from the scientific community until Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928. Until then, the therapeutic potential of penicillin had not been studied, but after more than ten years Ernest Chen Howard Flori took care of Fleming’s work. The purified form of penicillin Against a wide range of germs; with low toxicity to the host In addition, its effects did not inhibit biological constituents such as pus extracts, as opposed to sulfonamides, but no one was found to be equivalent to this activity, and the discovery of penicillin has renewed interest in the search for antibiotic compounds with potential 14 Because of the discovery of penicillin, Ernst Chin, Howard Fleury and Alexander Fleming shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945. 15 Fleur attributed it Dupus is credited with reviving his research on penicillin. he emergence of antibiotic resistance is an evolutionary process dependent on the selection of organisms that enhanced the ability to survive with doses of antibiotics that were fatal before that. 36 Antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin, which used to be miracle treatments, are now less effective because bacteria become more resistant. 37 Antibiotics themselves act as selective pressure that allows growth of bacterial resistance within the population mass and the staining of sensitive germs. 38 The selection of antibiotics for resistance within bacterial populations emerged in 1943 in the experience of Lilia-Delbrück. 39 Survival of bacteria is often the result of resistance inheritance. 40 Any antibiotic resistance may impose a biological cost and the spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has been hampered by low resistance-related efficacy, which proves that bacterial survival is not appropriate when antibiotics are not present. However, additional mutations may compensate for these costs and efficiencies and help the survival of these bacteria. 41 The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to antibiotic resistance can vary. The intrinsic resistance may naturally occur as a result of these bacteria in the genetic makeup. 42 The bacterial chromosome may fail to encode the protein that targets the antibiotic. The results obtained resistance from a mutation in the bacterial chromosome or acquisition of DNA outside the chromosomes. 42 Producing bacteria have evolved resistance mechanisms that have proven to be similar, and may have been transferred to antibiotic-resistant strains. 43 44 The spread of antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurs through the vertical transmission of inherited mutations from previous generations and the genetic recombination of DNA through horizontal genetic exchange. 40 Antibiotic resistance between different bacteria from plasmids The genes carrying antibiotic resistance symbols that may result in Participation in resistance to multiple antibiotics. 40 These plasmids can carry different genes with antibiotic-resistant mechanisms but are unrelated because they are located on the same polymorphic antibiotic-resistant plasmid as most of the antibiotics are transported. 45 Instead, cross resistance to other antibiotics under the resistance bacteria results when the same mechanism is responsible for the resistance of more than one antibiotic is selected . The worst use of antibiotics Antibiotics are not used to treat viral diseases Improper antibiotic treatment and overuse are factors that contribute to the emergence of bacterial resistance. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that individuals take antibiotics themselves without doctor’s guidance, and the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics to accelerate growth in agriculture. 47 Many organizations are undertaking campaigns to improve the regulatory climate with antimicrobial resistance. 48 A non-governmental campaign group antibiotic is to keep the worker. 49 In France, antibiotics are “not automatic” The government’s campaign starting in 2002 has led to a marked reduction in the qualities of unnecessary antibiotics, especially in children. 50 Excessive use of antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin, which has been used as one of the miracle treatments, has been associated with resistance since the 1950s. 37 51 The therapeutic use of antibiotics in hospitals may be seen as linked to increased bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics. 51 Common types of misuse of antibiotics include non-consideration of the patient’s weight and history of antibiotic use before, because both can severely affect the efficacy of antibiotic prescribing, the absence of fully-prescribed antibiotics, and failure to control the correct daily use (eg “all 8 hours “instead of three daily), or discomfort to recover healing. These practices may facilitate the growth of bacteria with antibiotic resistance inappropriate for treatment with common antibiotics is another form of misuse of antibiotics. Common examples are medical prescription and the use of antibiotics to treat viral infections such as colds that have no effect. In agriculture, antibiotic resistance with the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics to accelerate the growth of animals has been restricted to use in the United Kingdom in 1970 (Swann Report, 1969). There is currently a broad ban in the European Union on the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics to accelerate the growth process. It is estimated that more than 70% of antibiotics used in the United States are given to feed animals (such as chickens, pigs and cows) in the absence of disease. 52 The use of antibiotics in the production of animal food The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains was associated with bacteria including salmonella, colic, coli, and intestinal mites. 53 54 Evidence from the United States and some European studies suggest that these resistant bacteria cause human infections that do not respond to antibiotics that are usually prescribed. In response to these practices and associated problems, many organizations (such as the American Society of Microbiology, the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Medical Association (Monopoly) have called for restrictions on the use of antibiotics in food and animal production End all non-therapeutic uses. However, delays in regulatory and legislative actions to reduce the use of antibiotics . Two federal bills (S.742 55 and human resources 2562 56 intended to phase out non-antibiotics in the US animal food production were proposed but not passed. 55 56 These bills were supported by public health and medical organizations including The American Medical Association and the American Public Health Association (APHA). Doubtlessly, antibiotics are deemed as one of the most important sorts of medicines. Throughout the history of medicines the chemists, biologists, and scientists from divergent realms craved to pay a special heed to the antibiotic medicines due to its significance power in curing diseases and saving human’s life. However, one must be very careful while using the antibiotics as besides their great benefits they might cause harm to adults and child when used improperly. Furthermore, the antibiotics must not be used for viral diseases treatment, because the diseases generated out of viruses can never get cured by antibiotics as the human body automatically gets recovered from these common viral infections when the illness has run its course. On the other hand, the antibiotics play effective and crucial rule in recovering the bacterial infections which human beings and divergent types of animals may have. Usually, the antibiotics, or sometimes called antibacterial medicines, may success in healing the bacterial infections by fighting and killing the bacteria through attacking the walls of the infected cells and disintegrate them; in this sense, the antibiotics terminate the growth of the bacteria. However, there are some types of bacteria called; the resistant bacteria; which develop resistance against antibiotics and cannot get killed or terminated. The repeated use of the same antibiotic or the improper use of the antibiotics make the resistant bacteria to grow more powerful and resist the medicines; as a consequence they may cause dangerous and serious harm to the patients. Therefore, the patients can be recovered from the resistant bacteria through using a different type of antibiotics and of course with a good clinical observation and consultation of doctors. To sum up the whole subject, it is of a high significance to say that everyone must know how important the antibiotics are, how they work in healing bacterial infections, and how to cure the bacterial infections which are not recovered because of the resistant bacteria. • • ReferencesAndrews, K.T., G. Fisher, T.S. Skinner-Adams. “Drug Repurposing and Human Parasitic Protozoan Diseases.” International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 4.2: 95-111. PrintCG Prober, PD Walson, J Jones (2000). 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