First, of text with society and culture. The first

textual analysis discussed how ‘A’ and ‘B’ employed different types of
vocabulary and grammar features that hold specific ideas in order to persuade

         The analysis
of the two texts (see appendix) was based on Fairclough’s three-dimensional
framework (2015). In this section, I attempted to answer the first part of this
research question which investigated the textual, social and discursive
techniques employed in Snapchat cosmetics advertisement to persuade women. The
analysis was supported with Fairclough’s propositions of language, society and
ideology. Finally, the discussion of the analysis contributed to answering the
second questions of this research, which explores the contribution of textual,
social and discursive techniques in affecting women idealized image.

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         For the
purpose of the study, two texts were chosen and translated. The first text was
for a woman who was a social media influencer, she had weekly and monthly
recommendations of beauty products and food without showing her face. Usually
the product she recommends became sold out after her advertisement. The second
text was for a social media influencer who advertised different things including
beauty products without showing her face to the followers. This influencer even
launched her own cosmetics brand although she had not been seen applying her
products in her face in Snapchat. Women buy form her only because they trust
her choices. I used pseudonym A to refer to the first influencer and B to refer
to the second influencer to guaranty objectivity regardless of their names or
their social status. Therefore, the focus was on the ideology behind their
texts, in order to elucidate how texts, have a powerful effect.

theoretical framework used in this study was Fairclough’s critical discourse
analysis framework CDA (2015). The three-dimensional framework examined the
discursive relationship of text with society and culture. The first level tackled
the textual level, then discourse practice (interpretation) social practice
(explanation) levels are discussed. At the textual level, linguistic features
such as vocabulary, syntax and grammatical features employed in advertisements
were analyzed. Discourse practice analysis interpreted how power relations
work, in order to attract consumers. This was done by analyzing how these
influencers were using emotional words, intertextuality, code switching and
celebrity names. Social practice analysis included the intertextual explanation
to understand the “broad societal currents that are affecting the text being
studied” (Kaur et al, 2013, p.62). To sum up, this study employed a qualitative
approach, and seek to explore the textual, social and discursive techniques
employed in the cosmetics advertisements to persuade women in Snapchat.

        The mentioned
consequence raised the need for critical discourse analysis to make people
aware of such ideologies. In this research, Critical Discourse Analysis CDA
(Fairclough, 2015) is presented as a framework for analyzing Snapchat cosmetics
advertisements. CDA studies discourse as part of the social practice. Van Dijk
(2001) viewed CDA “as type of discourse analytical research that primarily
studies the way social power abuse, dominance and inequality are enacted,
reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context”
(p. 352). CDA explores how hidden ideologies and social power could be spread
through discourse, and how these ideologies shape the ideas and attitudes of
people (Fairclough, 1985). CDA studies involve a lot of domains like political
speeches and advertisements (Chiluwa, 2012; Christensen, 2011; Iqbal et al, 2014;
Kaur et al, 2013). This approach attempts to uncover the power and ideologies
hidden in a discourse, aiming to make change, raise awareness among societies
and develop our recognition of the world (Fairclough, 2015. P, 3-5).

Snapchat features entails showing the user’s face, but in Saudi Arabia the
situation is quite different. In local context, the uniqueness is that the
cosmetics advertisers in Snapchat, who are of course women, are not showing
their faces, due to the conservative nature of the Saudi society. Instead, the
influencers use long speeches to provide their followers with quite a lot of
information of the product such as, the ingredients and effectiveness. So,
these advertisements are not done through body image. Although background
images are used in their snaps e.g. pinkish rooms, fur, flowers, candles; the
textual discourse aspect is still the dominant and the one that these
influencers rely on to persuade the followers. Accordingly, it is not the image
alone that have an influence, but it is the associated ideas, concepts and
messages attached to that image (Lowe, 2007). In these advertisements, the
influencers use Snapchat to emphasize what is the ideal image of a woman. They
persuade their followers that it is no longer a mascara, lipstick and touch of
blusher to look pretty and ideal, but rather tens of products that should be
applied professionally in order to be part of their dominant, stylish and
fashionable group (Featherstone, 2010). This entails that a woman who does not
conform to their ideal image, is portrayed outgroup (Lowe, 2007, p.8). In other
words, they influence women’s ideas of who they are and what they could be, and
build their identities in relation to the images and text they see and read
(Lupinetti, 2015; Ali & Batool, 2015). According to Davies, “purchasing
decisions are shaped via the ways in which cosmetics advertisements are
consumed and interpreted by the female audience” (2016, p.48). Consequently,
massive sums are spent on cosmetics in Saudi Arabia, due to the exaggerated
emphasize of the importance of skin care and cosmetics, where the real benefit
is for the cosmetics companies’ profits (Al-Fawaz, 2016).

The app includes some features such as writing texts,
inserting emoji, and adding different filters e.g. time, location or weather.
Moreover, text messages between users are also available. Snapchat became a
powerful media which reach a vast number of people especially women (Young,
2014). A study of the overall ranking of the Snapchat application market states
that Saudi Arabia is one of ten strongest markets for Snapchat (AlSagri &
AlAboodi, 2015).