Introduction independence negotiations. Although the Muslim League formed in

Introduction

Who do you think caused it? This will be about why the
partition of India happened which was the process of dividing the subcontinent
along sectarian lines, which took place in 1947 as India gained its
independence from the British Raj. The northern,
predominantly Muslim sections of India became the nation of Pakistan, while the
southern and majority Hindu section became the Republic of India. This’ll also
be about why the Bangladesh Liberation War happened which was an armed conflict
that was sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination
movement in what was then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) between West Pakistan
(now Pakistan). The conflict of East Pakistan West Pakistan lasted for roughly
nine months in 1971. The war resulted in Bangladesh’s independence from
Pakistan.

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Research:

Partition of India
& Pakistan Background

In 1885,
the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress (INC) met for the first time.

When the British made an attempt to divide the state of Bengal along
religious lines in 1905, the INC lead huge protests against the plan. This
sparked the formation of the Muslim League, which sought to guarantee the
rights of Muslims in any future independence negotiations.

Although the Muslim League formed in opposition to the INC, and the
British colonial government attempted to play the INC and Muslim League off one
another, the two political parties generally cooperated in their mutual goal of
getting Britain to “Quit India.” Both the INC and the Muslim League
supported sending Indian volunteer troops to fight on Britain’s behalf in World
War I; in exchange for the service of more than 1 million Indian soldiers, the
people of India expected political concessions up to and including
independence. However, after the war, Britain offered no such concessions.

In April of 1919, a unit of the British Army went to Amritsar, in the
Punjab, to silence pro-independence unrest.

The unit’s commander ordered his men to open fire on the unarmed crowd,
killing more than 1,000 protesters. When word of the Amritsar Massacre spread
around India, hundreds of thousands of formerly apolitical people became
supporters of the INC and Muslim League.

In the 1930s, Mohandas Gandhi became the leading figure in the INC.

Although he advocated a unified Hindu and Muslim India, with equal rights
for all, other INC members were less inclined to join with Muslims against the
British. As a result, the Muslim League began to make plans for a separate
Muslim state.

Independence & Partition

World War II sparked a crisis in relations between the British, the INC
and the Muslim League. The British expected India once again to provide
much-needed soldiers and materiel for the war effort, but the INC opposed
sending Indians to fight and die in Britain’s war. After the betrayal following
World War I, the INC saw no benefit for India in such a sacrifice. The Muslim
League, however, decided to back Britain’s call for volunteers, in an effort to
carry out the British favor in support of a Muslim nation in post-independence
northern India.

Before the war had even ended, public opinion in Britain had swung
against the distraction and expense of empire. Winston Churchill’s party was
voted out of office, and the pro-independence Labour Party was voted in during
1945. Labour called for almost immediate independence for India, as well as
more gradual freedom for Britain’s other colonial holdings.

The Muslim League’s leader, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, began a public campaign
in favor of a separate Muslim state, while Jawaharlal Nehru of the INC called
for a unified India. (This is not surprising, given the fact that Hindus like
Nehru would have formed the vast majority, and would have been in control of
any democratic form of government.)

As independence neared, the country began to descend towards a sectarian
civil war. Although Gandhi implored the Indian people to unite in peaceful
opposition to British rule, the Muslim League sponsored a “Direct Action
Day” on August 16, 1946, which resulted in the deaths of more than 4,000
Hindus and Sikhs in Calcutta (Kolkata). This touched off the “Week of the
Long Knives,” an orgy of sectarian violence that resulted in hundreds of
deaths on both sides in various cities across the country.

In February of 1947, the British government announced that India would be
granted independence by June 1948. Viceroy for India Lord Louis Mountbatten
pleaded with the Hindu and Muslim leadership to agree to form a united country,
but they could not.

Only Gandhi supported Mountbatten’s position. With the country descending
further into chaos, Mountbatten reluctantly agreed to the formation of two
separate states and moved the independence date up to August 15, 1947.

With the decision in favor of partition made, the parties next faced this
nearly impossible task of fixing a border between the new states. The Muslims
occupied two main regions in the north on opposite sides of the country,
separated by a majority-Hindu section. In addition, throughout most of northern
India members of the two religions were mixed together – not to mention
populations of Sikhs, Christians, and other minority faiths. The Sikhs
campaigned for a nation of their own, but their appeal was denied.

In the wealthy and fertile region of the Punjab, the problem was extreme
with a nearly-even mixture of Hindus and Muslims. Neither side wanted to
relinquish this valuable land, and sectarian hatred ran high. The border was
drawn right down the middle of the province, between Lahore and Amritsar. On
both sides, people scrambled to get onto the “right” side of the
border or were driven from their homes by their erstwhile neighbors. At least
10 million people fled north or south, depending on their faith, and more than
500,000 were killed in the melee. Trains full of refugees were set upon by
militants from both sides, and all the passengers massacred.

On August 14, 1947, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was founded. The
following day, the Republic of India was established to the south.

Aftermath of Partition

On January 30, 1948, Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated by a young Hindu
radical for his support of a multi-religious state. Since August of 1947, India
and Pakistan have fought three major wars and one minor war over territorial
disputes. The boundary line in Jammu and Kashmir is particularly troubled.
These regions were not formally part of the British Raj in India, but were
quasi-independent princely states; the ruler of Kashmir agreed to join India
despite having a Muslim majority in his territory, resulting in tension and
warfare to this day.

In 1974, India tested its first nuclear weapon. Pakistan followed in
1998. Thus, any exacerbation of post-Partition tensions today could be
catastrophic.

The Kashmir conflict brief:

The Kashmir is a part of land between India and Pakistan. This piece of
land started before India and Pakistan won their independence from Britain in
August 1947, Kashmir was hotly contested. In addition, still to this day India
and Pakistan have been fighting over this piece of land. However, the people of
Kashmir are thinking of becoming an independent country to stop the war.

Research: Bangladesh
Liberation War

 

Bangladesh
Liberation War background:

 

The liberation war of Bangladesh in
1971 was a logical conclusion of the Bengali nationalist movement that started
soon after the formation of Pakistan in 1947. The movement, based on the
nationalistic aspirations of the Bengalis living in East Pakistan, was fueled
by the continuous neglect of Bengalis and their interests by the Pakistani
rulers. The nationalist movement reached its high point when Yahya Khan, the then
President of Pakistan, refused to hand over power to Awami League, the party
which received absolute majority in East Pakistan in the national elections of
1970. In protest, a non-cooperation movement was launched by Awami League.
Addressing a mammoth rally in Dhaka on March 7, 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman,
the absolute leader of East Pakistan at the time, declared: “This struggle is
the struggle for freedom, this struggle is the struggle for independence”. In
the same speech, Mujibur also asked the people to continue the struggle even if
he could not give any more orders. However, instead of accommodating the majority
party, military rulers of Pakistan chose the path of confrontation. The
volatile situation exploded when the Pakistani rulers resorted to brute force
and genocide to suppress the struggle of the Bengalis to achieve self-rule. In
this sense, the indiscriminate use of military force by the Pakistan Army,
which was initiated on the March 25, 1971 served as the immediate cause of the Bangladesh
war of liberation.

Beneficial or non-beneficial:

Personally, I think it’s beneficial
and slightly non-beneficial these are some reasons why.

Security:

Pakistan is in political confusion
since the 1960s. Therefore, the country security system is often put at risk by
various political movements. On the contrary, Bangladesh is doing slightly
better than Pakistan even though it is going through autocratic ruling and
disrupted by oppositions and others.

Education:

Pakistan’s literacy rate has fallen
to 55% where Bangladesh has risen to 71%. Bangladesh’s primary education system
is more organized where Pakistan’s not. However, in technical education and
Tertiary Education (exclude medical science) Pakistan is way ahead of
Bangladesh. Pakistan has established almost 100
new Universities last decade with introducing new courses like Nano-technology,
Automotive Engineering, Mechatronic engineering, Aeronautics engineering with
state of the art facilities through Higher Education Quality Enhancement
Project (HEQEP) and Higher Education Commission (HEC) and other statutory
organizations. Pakistan also linking its Institutes to Industries, obtaining
accreditation and building research centers to enhance its manpower. Some
Higher Learning Institutes in Pakistan have been given super computers for
their research purpose. On the other hand, the government of Bangladesh could
not establish Higher Learning Institutes, neither introduce demanding courses,
newer universities are lacking in necessary lab facilities. Unlike Pakistan,
Bangladesh tried to enhance Higher Learning Institute through private
universities which was a mistake. Most private universities lack in facilities
ad treat education as a market value. However, Pakistan has less medical
science institutes given the size of the population where Bangladesh has more
then 100 medical science institutes (36-public, rest private and most of them
are strictly monitored.

Infrastructure:

Pakistan has better infrastructure
(road networks, airports, etc) then Bangladesh. This is where Bangladesh is
lagging behind but soon it will bridge the gap. Bangladesh have taken tons of
project to upgrade its road networks like expressways, a 4-lane to a 6-lane
highway, double line train line (high speed capable), enhanced waterway
transportation system, three more new international airports under construction
and 2 existing international airports are seeing expansion like adding runways,
new terminals etc. Airlines business also booming in Bangladesh where Pakistani
Airlines facing various challenges. For a time being Pakistan may ahead of
Bangladesh but soon it will lag behind Bangladesh.

Industry:

Once Pakistan had good industrial
base such as textile, automotive, chemical, leather goods and agro products.
Still Pakistan has good grasp of these industries but Pakistan did not
diversify its Industries much. On the other hand, Bangladesh has grown as one
of the major Investment destination. Industry such as RMG, Textile,
Pharmaceutical and bio tech, Information Technology, Consumer Electronics and
home appliances manufacturing, electrical goods manufacturing, engineering
services, Agro Industry, automotive manufacturing, shipbuilding, steel and
glass, leather and footwear, Logistics, Banking and insurance services and
tourism. Bangladesh holding a good place in Plastic Industries, Furniture
Industries, Light engineering. Oil and gas Industries Pakistan is in good
position compare to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is overcoming this lag by Investing
heavily to oil and gas Industries.

Energy:

Bangladesh and Pakistan are both energy
hungry nations and both have seen over whelming demands about energy. Both
countries are increasing their capability by investing heavily on lots of
different types of energy. Bangladesh and Pakistan have both been investing in
renewable energy like solar panels, hydro electric windmills, etc. Bangladesh
is already ahead of Pakistan in renewable energy because of the various types
they have. Bangladesh have famed itself for being the largest off grid solar
energy country.

Defense:

In defense Pakistan is definitely
ahead of Bangladesh. Just starting to self-rely in defense gadgets is
Bangladesh. Whereas Pakistan started to do so two decades ago.

Conclusion on the
Bangladesh Liberation War

The Bangladesh war of Liberation was
a multi-dimensional event of great importance. First and foremost, it was a
struggle waged by the people of Bangladesh to achieve independence. Secondly,
as India supported the cause of Bangladesh, this struggle was translated into a
regional rivalry between India and Pakistan. Finally, in the Cold War perspective,
the struggle also triggered a triangular international power game between USA,
USSR and China. In this larger international and regional canvass, the Mukti
Bahini of Bangladesh is not always seen in the appropriate perspective. The
Indo-Pakistan War of December 1971, which was the culminating point of
Bangladesh Liberation War, tends to overshadow the slow and painstaking but
effective struggle that Mukti Bahini had waged against the occupation army of
Pakistan for preceding nine months. Whether or not Mukti Bahini could liberate
Bangladesh on its own is a mere academic question, since India, burdened with
the problem of 10 million Bangladeshi refugees, was in no position to wait for
that. The government and the people of Bangladesh also preferred a quicker end
to their agony. The Mukti Bahini did what it could, and history shows that its
performance not only make life miserable for the Pakistan Army, but also paved
the way for a speedy Indian victory. That is why for the people of Bangladesh,
Muktijoddha (freedom fighter) and Muktijuddho (liberation war) are connected
inseparably.

Overall:

Going back
to the question of ‘why was India split
into 3 different countries?’, I would specifically say that the main cause
was the British. This is because they caused Pakistan and India to separate. Specifically,
when they divided the whole of India as a mainly Hindu section and a mainly
Muslim section. Therefore, causing two religious parties into the Indian
political world which caused many clashes of laws following the religious ways.
Also from the separation of India Pakistan it caused Bangladesh to declare for
its independence