Literature construction materials by contractors, the literature related to

Literature
Review

The
construction industry is recognized as one of the largest consumers of natural
resources (Kibert, 1994). The industry is
responsible for the extraction of up to 60% of natural resources primarily used
as materials for the construction of buildings and infrastructure (Hill, 1997). It is also reported
to contribute to almost half of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,
making it one of the principal contributors to global warming (Kibert, 1994). The consumption of
these natural resources, especially in the construction industry, cannot be
sustained at present rate.

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In
today’s world, there is a growing need for sustainable construction materials
for construction. Most of the engineers, contractors, and owners are aware of
the financial benefits that Green buildings provide in comparison to conventional
buildings in long run. The trend of sustainability policy is emerging (Jian Zuo?, 2012). However, there are
several factors that come into play regarding the implementation of the
sustainable construction materials. The critical factors that impede owners in
adopting sustainable practices include economic feasibility, awareness, legislation
and regulation, support from project stakeholders, sustainable construction issues,
resource risk and project management models (Xiaolong Gan, 2015).

While
considering the adaptation of sustainable construction materials by contractors,
the literature related to sustainable construction was reviewed to depict the
current situation and the barriers that impede contractor’s adaptation of
sustainable construction materials was critically analyzed. In previous
literature, several studies focus on the importance and the benefits of sustainable
construction materials and the sustainability policy from owner’s and
contractor’s perspective. However, there is little to no quantifiable evidence
that illustrates the contractor’s usage of sustainable construction materials
and the critical factors which impede its usage. To fill this gap
of information, this paper reports an empirical study that investigates the use
of sustainable construction materials from contractor’s perspective.

 

Introduction                         

a.      Sustainable
Construction

 The World Commission on Environment and
Development (WCED) define the concept of sustainability as the development that
meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs. The 3 core principles of
sustainability identified by the World Summit on Social Development (UN, 2005)
are:

                                                                                                                     

Fig. 1: Principles of Sustainability

In
1994, the International Council of Building, CIB, defined the concept of
sustainable construction as the one ”responsible for creating and
maintaining” a healthy built environment based on the efficient use of resources
and in the project based on ecological principles (Kibert, 1994).

 

b.     Sustainable Construction Materials

Construction
materials are used in construction and building whose production is often
within extraction and mining sectors that relies excessively on non-renewable
energy sources. Since the extraction of construction material has a significant
impact on the natural environment, the choice of these materials must focus on
non-toxic materials, materials with low embodied energy, recyclable materials,
materials containing wastes from other industries, materials obtained from
renewable resources, materials with high durability, and others. In other
words, the construction materials selected should comply with the three core
principles of sustainability, that is, the materials should be environmentally,
economically and socially viable.

Necessity
for contractors to evolve towards sustainable practices

1.     Increased profitability

2.     Competitiveness

3.     Ensuring user satisfaction and well-being

4.     Respect for people

5.     Protecting the natural environment

6.     Decrease reliance on non-renewable energy and natural
resources and many more.