Modern-day Kenya was first colonized by the Imperial British East Africa Company as the British East Africa Protectorate on 1st July 1895.Under British rule, Kenya was subject to harsh social, economic, and political policies. Racial discrimination protected under the law was also widespread. Large amount of arable land were specifically set aside for white Europeans, and labor laws were put in place to force the Africans to work for minimal wages on settler farms and public works. These conditions, however, further intensified the desire for independence, forcing the British colonial government to come up with constitutional proposals to let Africans directly elect their representatives. In the elections or 1957, the first election under this new constitution, eight prominent African leaders (including the future President Daniel Moi) were elected. They decided to form a mass organization to fight for independence, hence the birth of Kenya African National Union, (KANU). Eventually, due to pressure from KANU, the British granted Kenya its independence on December 12, 1963.Political Organization: The Republic of Kenya is a Presidential Republic and Representative Democracy. The country has a multi-party political system whose hallmark is parliamentary democracy. The Parliament of Kenya, which makes up the legislative branch of the country, is a bicameral house consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has in total 349 members plus the Speaker and each member is elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies. Forty-seven women are also elected from the counties, and twelve members are nominated to represent the young, people with disabilities and workers. The Senate consists of 67 members plus the Speaker. The Senate consists of forty-seven members each elected by the voters of the counties, sixteen members who are nominated by political parties, two members representing the youth, and two members representing the disabled. Both the MPs and Senators serve a 5-year term.The President of the Republic of Kenya, together with the Deputy-President and the Presidential-appointed Cabinet Secretaries comprise the executive branch. The current President of Kenya is Uhuru Kenyatta and the Deputy-President is William Samoei Ruto.Shape and Boundary:Kenya has a total of 3,457 kilometers of land boundaries plus a 536 kilometer long border with the Indian Ocean. It borders a total of five countries: Ethiopia (for 867 km), Somalia (for 684 km), South Sudan (for 317 km), Tanzania (for 775 km), and Uganda (for 814 km). Kenya’s national borders were mostly arbitrarily drawn by British colonialists. However, in certain places, the border is defined by natural topography. For example, the border follows the Dawa River along Ethiopia for a few hundred kilometers. Additionally, the Tanzanian-Kenyan border is also defined by a piece of topography, Mount Kilimanjaro (the highest peak in Africa), of which the border cuts through. Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties that are headed by governors. These 47 counties now form the first-order divisions of the country. Constituencies are an electoral subdivision and the current second-order division in Kenya. Each county comprises a certain number of constituencies. There are a total of 349 Assembly constituencies and 67 Senate constituencies. Kenyan local authorities mostly do not follow common boundaries with divisions. They are classified as either Cities, Municipalities, or Towns. Some local authorities divide their area further into wards.International Trade: The top exports of Kenya are Tea ($1.15B), Cut Flowers ($653M), Refined Petroleum ($389M), Coffee ($227M) and Legumes ($151M). Its top imports are Refined Petroleum ($2.18B), Cars ($517M), Packaged Medicaments ($447M), Video Displays ($438M) and Delivery Trucks ($387M).The top export destinations of Kenya are the United States ($556M), Uganda ($534M), the Netherlands ($431M), the United Kingdom ($391M) and Zambia ($390M). The top import origins are China ($5.92B), India ($3.18B), Japan ($892M), Tanzania ($793M) and South Africa ($604M).Kenya is the 107th largest export economy in the world according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2015, Kenya exported $5.25B and imported $17.6B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $12.3B. In 2015 the GDP of Kenya was $63.4B and its GDP per capita was $3.09k.International Organizations:Some examples of international organizations that Kenya is a member state of is the African Union (AU), the East African Community (EAC), the United Nations (UN), the East African Development Bank (EADB), and the World Health Organization (WHO).