unambiguous global temperature increase and other climatic changes are already
beginning to add pressures on coastal environments. Sea-level rise all over the
world is a major long-term effect of climate warming is impacting coasts now
and will have increasingly significant social and economic impacts on coastal
and low-lying regions worldwide. About 600 million people in coastal regions
below 10 m elevation are increasingly at risk from the coastal hazards.
not only increasing threat of climate change is the problem of the coastal
regions of the world. Coastal regions are also facing many problems due to the
continuing arrival of large numbers of people in coastal regions, human influence
on coastal ecosystems and resources.
of natural environment, different social vulnerability (especially in emerging
countries) and exposure to coastal hazards create a complicated picture of
socio-ecological vulnerability in coastal regions of the world.
change poses increasing threats to coastal areas, including atmospheric and
coastal water temperatures rise, precipitation and runoff changes, potentially
significant sea-level rise, unsafe changes in coastal storms and typhoon
intensification, changes of ocean currents, acidification, changing freshwater
and sedimentary flows to the coast, and nutrient enrichment of coastal streams
resulting impact on coastal natural and human systems requires individuals,
businesses and communities to find creative ways to adapt and change their
behavior to minimize coastal risks.
adaptation strategies evolve, coastal management must better consider the
cumulative, synergistic and increasing pressures of climate change and
concurrent human activity.
is important remember that coastal management issues in climate change cannot
be solved once and for all due to incomplete, sometimes contradictory and
changing conditions and sometimes lack of understanding of causes and wrong preferences
for solutions. For example, during construction of breakwaters we always need
to consider future change of overtopping rate due to sea-level rise.
sciences and new practices are needed to face unexpected problems that may come
and create unsuspected solutions, thus ensuring the safe and prosperous
occupation of the coastal area.