breeding is an art and science of improving genetic architecture of plants in
order to increase their value in terms of better adaptation to new agricultural
areas, greater resistance to insect pest and diseases, high yield of useable
parts, better nutritional contents of edible portions and enhanced
physiological efficiency (Ahmad et al., 1998).
breeding has been practiced since thousands of years ago. Early plant breeders
were the farmers who select the best looking plants, collect their seeds and
grow them for next season. This process of domestication had dramatically
changed the genetic habit of plants compared to their wild relatives (Bachhawat
& Ghosh, 1987). After the discovery of Mendel’s work in 1900, more advancement
have been made in the discipline of plant breeding and now this practice is
being adopted worldwide by individuals including gardener, farmers and
professional plant breeders who use the knowledge of genetics in the selection
of plants having genes for desired traits.
population is increasing with a rapid rate. In 1804, human population first
exceeded one billion and within 118 years it has doubled. After the World War
II, it has doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion and now it is estimated that within
the next 20 years, a further two billion increase will occur in human
population. To feed such a large population, there is a need to improve the
crop production by exploiting better breeding technologies. It is stated that
since now the production of cereal crops and oilseed crops has been improved by
120% and 130% respectively. Similarly more than 80% increase in vegetable
production, 43% increase in fruit production, 40% increase in pulses production
and 36% increase in roots crop production has been achieved through different
breeding practices as well as other techniques of crop husbandry within 50
years. In early ages of plant breeding when modern techniques of plant breeding
have not been developed, conventional breeding was only the tool of crop
improvement. Until the year 2000, all progress in the improvement of major farm
crops was the result of only conventional plant breeding techniques (Baldani
et al., 2001).
the shoots had been elongated in shoot elongation media, they were shifted into
the rooting media. The test tubes containing sugarcane culture were taken to
the laminar flow cabinet with UV light witched on before 20 min. UV light was
switched off and the blower was switched on. The protocol of the sterilization
was adopted. With the help of forceps, sugarcane culture containing developed
shoots were taken from the test tubes containing shoot elongation media and
were shifted to other autoclaved test tubes containing rooting media for the
developments of roots after sterilization of their open mouths in burner flame.
Their mouths were wrapped with autoclaved polypropylene strips and sterilized
rubber bands (Tajini et al., 2007). The test tubes were placed in stands and
the stands were placed in incubation room.
liter of distilled water was taken and it was divided into two equal volumes.
One volume was taken into a flask and weighed quantity 1.75 g of phytagel
powder was added into the beaker. The beaker was placed on hot plate with
continuous stirring for one to two boils. The second volume was taken into a
beaker and weighed quantities 4.43 g of MS-media, 30 g of d-sucrose, 1 mg of NAA
and 10 ml of fe were added into the water in beaker. It was shaken well for
mixing the contents of solution.ph of the solution was checked with PH meter
and it was adjusted at 5.70 by using few drops of NaOH and HCL solutions
(Tajini et al., 2007). After two boils of phytagel solution, the two solutions
were mixed together to make the media for roots development. It was poured into
100 test tubes placed in stands each containing 10 ml of media, with the help
of hypodermic syringe. The stands were wrapped with newspaper and were placed
in autoclave machine for autoclaving at 121 ºC temperature for 20 min.
The flask was placed on hot plate for 1 to 2 boils.
The second part (500 ml) of distilled water was taken into a beaker and
measured quantities, 4.43 g of MS media, 30 g of d-sucrose, 480 mg of casein
hydrolysate, 1+2.5 ml of kinetin (from the stock solution of 100 mg of kinetin
dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water) and 10 ml of fe-solution were added
into the beaker water. It was shaken well for mixing the contents of solution (Silva
et al., 1999) . ThePH of the solution was checked with PH meter and it was
adjusted to 5.7 by using few drops of NAOH or HCL solutions. After 2 boils of
phytagel solution, both the solutions were mixed together. This was the media
for multiple shoots development. It was poured into 100 test