The revolution of the French Revolution of 1789, as a result of a number of factors that had accumulated and led to its eventual emergence, is considered one of the most important revolutions of the modern era. It came up with new concepts of the modern era; it influenced political and economic principles and systems and carried out major political and social transformations in political and cultural history For France and Europe in general. The revolution began in 1789 and ended almost in 1799. The governments of the French Revolution abolished absolute monarchy, feudal privileges of the aristocracy, and clergy. 1. The causes and developments of the revolution Indirect causes: First: the political factor It is the very bad political system of absolute monarchy, the exploitation of the will of the king by his entourage, his wife, senior nobles, clerics and other members of the royal palace, so that people are not safe for their lives. Since the second half of the seventeenth century (the era of Louis XIV), absolute monarchy was based on the divine right or what was known as the theory of divine government of kings in France, and Louis XIV says the state I, and extended this idea to his successors was the system of government in France before The Revolution was Absolutely Tyrannical Louis XVI, who lived in the era of the Revolution (1774-1793), was known for his weakness of character and the control of the diocese. Nevertheless, he was adamant of absolute power, rejecting all kinds of political development. One of the disadvantages of the absolute rule suffered by France was the sealed letters that Louis 16 issued to avenge critics of his rule, as well as to incite the country into wars that could only satisfy the king’s desire. The number of the king’s entourage reached 18,000, When the majority of the people lived in misery and misery. The administrative system was characterized by corruption due to the absence of administrative unity, high customs performance between the regions and the spread of bribery. All this has prevented the consolidation of national ties between the various sides of France and was followed by those who came after him until the overthrow of the revolution absolute monarchy in the era of Louis XVI. Second: the social factor The French society was divided into three classes: the nobility associated with the palace, which enjoyed all privileges, including the right to government jobs and tax exemptions. They called themselves “the owners of blue blood”, distinguishing them from the rest of the people, and the clergy, The French monarchy, which enjoyed the rights and privileges of its heirs and nobility of the era of feudalism and live a life of luxury and madness, and as a result people hated them where a few people belonged to the first and second classes, but they had the largest share of wealth and influence And privileges. And the last class is the class of the public or the general population of the peasantry and the petty bourgeoisie and was the largest class in society, then numbered 25 million people, the three were deprived of all privileges and suffer from deprivation and payment of taxes and forced labor and its children exploited in wars, which had a knock French society for political power and social status. Third: The economic factor It is one of the main factors that fueled the revolution. The treasury of the country has been suffering from a great resource shortage since the days of Louis XIV because of its continuing wars, because of France’s financing of the American War of Independence, the lavishness of the king’s court and the privileges of nobles. (Necker) and Calone, all failed in their mission as a result of the opposition of the aristocracy to the reform projects, in addition to the economic crisis and the miraculous rise in prices that affected the lives of the French people who could not afford it. Buy a loaf In bread, especially during the famine that swept through France in 1788. Fourth: The intellectual factor: The revolution was half a century of intellectual and cultural development in France during the Enlightenment. This thought influenced the revolution by revealing the deteriorating conditions in which France lived. Most of the criticism was directed at the church and the government, and their disadvantages. Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau are among the leading pioneers of this intellectual movement. Voltaire’s ideas have awakened the oppressed classes and people quickly accept his sarcastic style, acerbic criticism and clear language. Montecquio, 1689-1755, writes of justice and the constitution and the need to separate the three powers (executive, legislative and judicial) from the English Constitution; His writings continued to influence the French from generation to generation. Rousseau defined the government as a social contract that guaranteed the people protection and was approved by the people. The ruler here ruled as an agent of the nation and he had to abide by what the nation wanted. If he deviated from his post, Then Russo denies that there is a ruler deriving his powers from a source other than the nation. The direct causes of the French Revolution Meeting of the Layers of the Nation: After the economic conditions worsened and taxes were increased, the king decided to convene the Council of the Layers of the Nation, which was meeting in the case of severe crises on May 5, 1789, which was the will of the aristocracy to prevent attempts at reform. Tradition dictated that the Council should consist of three elected bodies, one of which was the Euclid (the King – the Church), the second represented the nobles, and the third represented the people. The ballot was held in three separate units and not according to the number of members.Whereas the clergy were under the control of nobles who held high positions in the Church for the services they provided, the first two classes were always certain to obtain a majority of the votes, and so the third class – the people – bore the burden of taxes alone. The members of this class were keen on this matter, and demanded that the vote in the Council be according to the number of members not according to the class, and then demanded that the Council have the authority to implement the projects. The leaders of the public class announced the disobedience and sit-ins at a tennis court near the Versailles Palace until their demands were fulfilled. They called themselves the National Assembly and decided to draft a constitution for the country, especially after they were joined by some of the nobility and clergy. These developments and the fear of Louis XVI and the call of some of the army teams to protect his headquarters and the extravagance and extravagance that appeared at the reception of these forces despite the famine suffered by the people as a result of fueling the street and fear of a royal plot against the National Assembly, sparked a popular revolution in Paris and on July 14 1789, the rebellious masses attacked the arms stores and took over what they had then attacked the terrible Bastille prison, which was seen as a symbol of the royal authority in the country. After several hours of fighting, and a fierce battle in which the prison guards were exterminated, the prison fell into the hands of the revolutionaries who destroyed it and released the prisoners. In the face of this great revolution, the king retreated and confessed to the National Assembly and agreed to raise the flag of the tripartite revolution. Today is the feast of France. National Assembly 1789-1791 At the same time, the National Assembly directed its efforts to develop the Constitution of France and to find means to stop the tide of chaos and to absorb the curse of the street. The most prominent work of the Assembly was the declaration of the Human Rights Charter on August 4, 1789, which the King tried to reject but was met with violent resistance from the people. The distribution of taxes equally among the people and without class discrimination, the nationalization of the Church’s money and land as the property of the people and the promulgation of a constitution for the clergy, which annoyed Louis 16 as a religious and fled to the north of the country, hoping to return with the Royal Army there and in coordination with The scourge of immigrants outside of France, but he discovered his order and re-with his family to Paris, and at the beginning of the month of September, the National Assembly completed the task of drafting the Constitution, which devoted itself for it in the first days of the revolution which is to give France a constitution democratically guaranteed public freedoms and distributes authorities equitably. The Constitution was adopted by the Assembly on September 3, 1791, and the Constitution affirmed the principle of separation of powers, that is, the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers. Legislative Assembly: 1791-1792 The Legislative Assembly held its first meeting. The first of its tasks was to implement the articles of the Constitution and to protect the results of the revolution. The Assembly was composed of several political forces, including the right-wing forces. They were nobles of liberal orientation who believed in the constitutional monarchy and the forces of the middle. They were the majority who believed in the revolution, the constitution and the leftist forces, namely the Girondians, Jacob) and they believe in the republican system and besides these forces there were forces hostile to the revolution outside the association made up of immigrants and nobles and standing with them the emperors of Europe who found in the slogans of the revolution a danger to their thrones the Assembly had to leave everything and face the external threat that emerged He was inspired by the announcement by the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia that they wished to restore order to France and to abolish the revolution. In April 1789, France declared war on Austria and its armies entered Belgium. However, the Francs were defeated before the Austrians. Then the armies of Austria and Prussia threatened the Paris capital. The French people vigorously attacked the revolution and took the youth to volunteer in the army until the French forces led by Demurier defeated Austria. And Prussia in the Battle of Valme. National Congress 1792-1795 After the arrival of the news of French victories in Valme, the Legislative Assembly ended its work and was replaced by the National Congress, which was the abolition of property and the declaration of the Republic and then the trial of Louis XVI and his execution in January 1793, and then declared the Conference of France’s readiness to help each nation demanding freedom and wants to get rid of its rulers, The European countries have announced the formation of the first European alliance against France, which will be from Britain, Austria, Prussia, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Gal, and Sardinia). This alliance was able to join the French armies, accompanied by insurrection and internal disobedience led by the supporters of the monarchy, which required the leaders of the revolution to take a firm stand to meet these challenges and the so-called “terrorist era” and despite what was said about this era, but saved France from internal dangers And externally could have led to the collapse of the Republic. In addition, the conference achieved many social and economic reforms. The French Civil Code, the establishment of schools and the establishment of the Louvre Museum set up a new system of standards and standards, which was the decimal system. It was enacted in late 1795 and was defined by the constitution of the third year of the republic. In a failed coup attempt led by royalists to attack the headquarters of the National Congress, the intervention of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was a young officer in the artillery, and his skill and military experience, managed to thwart this conspiracy and the difference to the (commander of the internal armies). Results of the French Revolution: The revolution came with immediate and long-term results, and its results were not limited to France, but crossed the border to other countries, which were inspired by the French Revolution and the achievements of the French people. First: the emergence of a republican system in modern modern form is different from the forms of republican systems that preceded it and spread this form among the countries of the world and ended with the era of absolute monarchy. Second, writing the country’s first constitution approved the separation of the three executive, legislative and judicial powers, which reduces and reduces the possibility of the hegemony of authority over other authorities, despite the subsequent coups on the French Constitution. The Constitution also approved the separation of religion from the state and lofty principles not preceded by another constitution such as equality and freedom of expression Opinion and non-discrimination among citizens because of religion. Thirdly, the French policy was liberated from the authority of the Church and the clergy and abolished the privileges of these nobles and clergy. This was exploited by the middle bourgeoisie, especially as the result of this revolution was the liberation of the economic system of the state and towards capitalism and the free economy. Fourth, it came up with new concepts such as individual freedom, social justice, free education and the adoption of French as the official language of the entire state, which later created a factor of unity. Fifthly, many political experts define the history of the French Revolution as a history of the emergence of the modern nation states, in which regimes represent the will of their peoples. Despite the stumbling block that has afflicted the course of this revolution and the obstacles it has created, it has sounded the alarm and the moment of the start of Europe’s tyrannical tyranny, They succeeded in restoring the monarchy but for a short time, the wishes of all the rulers of Europe could not prevent the liberation of the French people and the heart of the thrones over their owners, and even the French Revolution extended its influence outside. They became mere formal rulers and people managed to govern themselves.